September 11th, 1866 – Ewing’s Method Officially Patented, Leading to Mobil Oil

In 1866, a carpenter named Matthew Ewing patented his method for distilling kerosene. Ewing’s method involved kerosene being distilled in a vacuum in a process that ultimately produced lubricants. The result of this post-Civil War innovation was the establishment of Mobil Oil.

Matthew Ewing and Hiram Everest founded the Vacuum Oil Company in New York. This happened just three weeks after the patent was issued and “Ewing’s Patent Vacuum Oil” was the company’s first product. It was a leather conditioner. Eventually, Ewing ended his partnership with Everest and found greater success with Vacuum Harness Oil. He used containers that were normally used for canning oysters to distribute lubricant.

Everest sold 75% of Vacuum Oil to Standard Oil Company in 1880. Vacuum Oil became Socony Mobil more than fifty years later. Then, the company became Mobil Oil and finally ExxonMobil as the result of a merger in 1999.

September 12th, 1866 – First Texas Oil Discovery

Lyne Taliaferro Barret and the Melrose Petroleum Oil Company finished a well east of Nacogdoches in 1866. This well turned out to be the first commercial well in the Lone Star state.

The No. 1 Isaac C. Skillern Well was drilled in Oil Springs. Oil was found at just over 100 feet. However, production was somewhat minimal and the well only produced 10 BOPD. This combined with limited market access led to the failure of Barret’s company. The field was dormant for almost 20 years until other companies found oil nearby.

Some of the wells in Nacogdoches field produced oil until the 1950s, making it one of the oldest producing fields in Texas for many years.

September 13th, 1957 – Hawaii’s First Refinery Opens

Standard Oil of California announced plans to build the first refinery in Hawaii in 1957. The location was 8 miles from Pearl Harbor on the Island of Oahu. In 1959, Popular Mechanics reported that Standard Oil originally planned to import oil using a submarine cable.

September 13th, 1975 – Permian Basin Petroleum Museum Opens

Over 400 guests attended the opening ceremony of the Permian Basin Petroleum Museum, Library and Hall of Fame. President Gerald R. Ford even traveled to Midland, Texas to speak at the event.

Ford also toured the museum and was presented with a sculpture by Lester Fox called “Dressing the Bit.” Chairman Emil Rassman was in charge of presenting the piece.

More than 500 community leaders contributed to the completion of the museum. That effort was lead by George Abell. Today, visitors can see a number of cultural, geological and technical exhibits along with a collection of rare Chaparral race cars are also on display.

September 14, 1871 – Grant’s Tour Unveils Future Oil Sites

President Ulysses S. Grant went on a tour of northwestern Pennsylvania. This tour included sites that contributed to a major oil boom such as Oil City, Petroleum Center and Titusville. All of these locations played a role in a commercial oil discovery that would change the world forever. In 1875, Grant ordered Pennsylvania Avenue to be paved with asphalt–a product that came as a byproduct of the oil production in these areas.

September 14th, 1929 – Yates Well Breaks Records

When a Texas well struck oil at about 1,000 feet and produced an over 200,000 BOPD, it became the most productive well in the world at the time. The Yates 30-A Well was producing close to 9,000 barrels of oil every hour, setting a new production record.

This well was in Pecos County, close to the Yates field. A year later, the Ira G. Yates 1-A. was discovered, eventually unveiling the true size of the Permian Basin.

The newest well is operated by Transcontinental Oil and the Mid-Kansas Oil and Gas Company, now Marathon. This well ultimately lead to prosperity in Odessa, Midland, and Iraan. The Yates Field hit a historic milestone in 1985 when it produced its billionth oil barrel.

September 14th, 1960 – Baghdad Conference and OPEC Established

The OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) was established by Venezuela, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Iraq at the Baghdad Conference. Nine other members would also join the organization. Its headquarters were in Geneva, Switzerland, until September 1965. Today, the location of their headquarters is Vienna, Austria.

The objective of the OPEC is to unify and coordinate and unify petroleum policies in member countries. They strive to establish stable and fair prices for producers and to provide an economic, efficient and regular petroleum supply to consuming nation. The organization also places great focus on getting fair returns on capital for industry investors.

September 15th, 1886 – Eaton Mining and Gas Company Ushers In Indiana Boom

The Eaton Mining and Gas Company was founded by investors in 1886 after Ohio natural gas discoveries excited speculation in Indiana. On September 15th, the company’s first well was completed at 920 feet. When natural gas was found, it’s said that the resulting flame could be seen in Muncie, which was 10 miles away.

At that time, The Trenton Field was the largest gas field in the world, spreading over 17 counties in the state of Indiana and launching a natural gas boom in the state. Over the next 36 months, more than 200 companies were drilling, selling and exploring natural gas. Andrew Carnegie, a well-known industrialist claimed that natural gas replaced ten thousand tons of coal for steelmaking each day.

September 4th, 1841 – Percussion Drilling Technology Patented

The “Rock Drill Jar” was patented by William Morris on September 4th, 1841 with a discovery that would forever change the drilling industry as it further supported further development in early drilling technology. Morris experimented with his device while he drilled brine wells.

Historian Samuel Pees explained that the success of mechanical cable tool drilling had relied on jars. He added that William drilled salt wells with jars in the 1830s. However, there wasn’t much else known about Morris beyond his address, listed in Kanawha County, and his invention. Later, when used in combination with jars, cable tool systems were able to meet drilling demands.

William Morris patented the device, using his knowledge as a driller, simply naming it No. 2243. The purpose of this device was to link sinkers and augers together to bore artesian wells.

The upper part of the jars operated with a sinker bar. This section would perform a critical function. It caused the lower part to strike the underlying auger stem with strong force. The force could free a bit if it was stuck in a formation.

Percussion drilling efficiency increased because of the telescoping link apparatus. In the years that followed, other drillers continued to improve the jars. As a result, cable-tool drilling technology quickly began to advance.

September 5th, 1927 – Electric Logging Tool Tested by the Schlumberger Brothers

In Pechelbronn, France brothers Marcel and Conrad Schlumberger used a new surface system for the first time. This new electric well-logging tool worked vertically inside a well instead of horizontally.

In 1912, Conrad had developed a plan for using electrical measurements that could map out rock formations. After the brothers developed a four-probe surface approach for mineral exploration, they created their well log.

They put the tool to use shortly after and recorded a single lateral-resistivity curve at points in a wells’ borehole. Then, they graphically organized the results against the well’s depth. This created a log of geologic structures. Differences in underground resistance readings revealed variations and prolific areas.

This ground-breaking technology made Schlumberger the first well logging company in the world.

September 5th, 1885 – The First “Filling Station” Pump Created

When Sylvanus F. Bowser created the design for the modern gas-pump in 1885, he had no idea how widely used his invention would be. He sold the first pump Fort Wayne, Indiana to an owner of a grocery store.

The gas-pump held 42 gallons and was made so that petroleum products burning fluid could be safely distributed. Bowser’s gas-pump featured an upright faucet, marble valves and a wooden plunger.

After Sylvanus sold his first pump, it gained popularity fast. In 1887, Sylvanus patented his creation and established the S.F. Bowser Company. In the next decade, vehicles became more popular making the company was extremely successful. The Self-Measuring Gasoline Storage Pump was a well known filling station for drivers by 1905. People claim the first gas station was built in St. Louis during the same year.

September 7th, 1917 –  Hogg’s Oil Legacy

Fifty miles south of Houston, The Tyndall-Wyoming Oil Company finished the No 1. Hogg well after the company drilled 20 dry holes in a row. Another well they found a few months later went on to produce over six hundred BOPD. These two wells ended the cycle of dry holes that dated back to 1901.

During that year, Texas Governor Jim Hogg paid close to $30,000 to lease the land. Oil discoveries on that land that revealed West Columbia Oilfield. Hogg died eleven years before these discoveries. However, he specified in his will that the mineral rights shouldn’t be sold for 15 years after he passed. This turned out to be highly beneficial for his family, as by 1918 the field produced over 100,000 barrels of oil.

September 7th, 1923 – Discovery at Dominguez Hills

In 1923 Major Frederick Russell Burnham found oil in Dominguez Hills. This location was an unincorporated section of Los Angeles Country. The well produced more than 1,000 BOPD at a depth of four thousand feet. Before his discovery, Frederick was a soldier for British and U.S armies and was known as “King of the Scouts.”

The Dominguez Hills oilfield was opened by two companies: the Union Oil Company of California and the Burnham Exploration Company. The oilfield was two miles wide and deep and contained eight productive zones.

This oil field was named after a Spanish soldier who obtained grant for the land in 1784. The area turned out to be extremely prolific. According to California State University, Dominguez Hills, family fortunes skyrocketed in the Torrance area and Dominguez Hill area in the 1920s. Union Oil and Burnham Exploration paid more than $10 million to stockholders by 1933.

September 9th, 1928 – Oil Production Regulated in Oklahoma

In 1928, the state regulatory body enforced an order on oil production across the entire state of Oklahoma. The goal was to control overproduction in new oil fields, including fields from the Seminole oil boom.

These limitations were as set by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission. Oil production was limited to 700,000 BOPD. Wildcat wells had a limit of one hundred BOPD. The commission allocated just over 400,000 BOPD for newer oil fields like Seminole and about 300,000 BOPD for older oil fields.

September 10th, 1879 –  Chevron Established

In 1879, the now world-famous Chevron Corporation started after Pacific Coast Oil acquired California Star Oil Works. California Star Oil Works was the first company to uncover large amounts of oil in California.

As the company grew, its retail outlets added many service station logos to help build the brand identity it is known for today. Some of the logos added were Texaco red star, the Unocal “76” logo, Standard Oil Company of California’s chevron and the orange disc of Gulf Oil.

A company historian claimed that an oil discovery in Pico Canyon led to the start of the Pacific Coast Oil Company. He went on to state that Alex Mentry struck oil in Pico Number 4. He was up against underbrush, rattlesnakes, mud and wasps at the time, but still made the discovery, officially putting California on the map as an oil-producing state.

The largest refinery in California was built by Pacific Coast Oil in 1880. The refinery had a capacity of 600 BOPD.

Pacific Coast Oil merged with Standard Oil from 1906 to 1911. In 1926, Standard Oil became Socal. In 1984, Gulf Oil was acquired by Chevron U.S.A. Later, in 2001, it merged with Texaco. Unocal was also acquired by Chevron in 2005, ultimately building the Chevron brand that we all know today.

September 10th, 1969 – Second Nuclear Test Takes Place in Colorado

On September 10th, 1969, residents near Garfield County Colorado heard a major explosion when a 40-kiloton nuclear device exploded. The device was detonated eight miles southeast of Parachute, CO, as part of the government-sponsored Operation Plowshare.

The purpose of the program was to study explosions from nuclear devices for nonviolent purposes. This was the second test of its kind, with the first nuclear test taking place in New Mexico in 1967.

Four years later in Rio Blanco County, Colorado a third test, named Rio Blanco took place. Three 33 kiloton devices detonated underground all at the same time. Their depths ranged between 5,000 and 7,000 feet, but unfortunately, the natural gas that came out of these tests was radioactive and unusable.

August 30th, 1919 – Snake Hollow Gas Boom Brings Industry to Pittsburgh

The August 30th the discovery of the Snake Hollow Gusher in McKeesport, Pennsylvania spearheaded a Pittsburgh oil boom, eventually bringing 300 companies to the area in a matter of months.

The well was located near Monongahela River and produced over 60 million feet of gas per day. This discovery caused an exploration frenzy and more than $30 million dollars of investment in the area.

A  local newspaper reported that many citizens agreed to allow drilling on their property. Additionally, gas company stocks were sold on street corners and brokerage houses appeared where barbershops used to be.

Despite all of this, the frenzy ended quickly, only seven  months after the discovery of the well. Production quickly declined in nearly 200 wells. Additionally, 440 exploratory wells ended up being dry holes. During the boom, millions of dollars were invested but only $3 million in profits were made back. This field was later called the scene of the largest boom and loudest crash in Pittsburgh.

August 30th, 2002 – Birth of ConocoPhillips

Frank and L.E. Phillips finished their first well almost 100 years after the Snake Hollow Gusher and almost 130 years after Continental Oil used a horse drawn carriage to deliver its very first can of kerosene. Conoco Inc. and Phillips Petroleum combined to establish ConocoPhillips in 2002.

Other business ventures also contributed to the success of ConocoPhillips. Some of the earlier companies were Marland Oil, Transcontinental Oil and Transportation, Continental Oil and Refining, and 101 Ranch Oil. ConocoPhillips separated its marketing and refining businesses ten years later. After the separation in May 2012, Phillips 66 debuted as an independent energy company.

August 31st, 1850 – San Francisco Utility Inc. Established

In 1850, The San Francisco Gas Company was established to distribute and produce manufactured gas under the leadership of James and Peter Donahue and Joseph Eastland. These Irish immigrants built a coal gasification plant. Their plant distilled coal and made gas to power lights. In 1952, the power for the first gas street lamps came from The San Francisco Gas Company. Over the next five decades, The San Francisco Gas Company merged with other companies ultimately resulting in the formation of the Pacific Gas and Electric in 1905.

There were around 8,500 lamps on the street in San Francisco by 1915. These lamps were turned on and off by hand. In 1930, the final coal-gas lamp was extinguished as the town transitioned entirely to gas lamps.

August 31st, 1859 – First Dry Hole in America is Drilled

The first oil well in America was found in Titusville, Pennsylvania in 1859 and just four days later, an entrepreneur named John Grandin achieved a series of more, less profitable, “firsts.”

Previously, Edwin L. Drake used a method that required a steam powered rig to drill. Grandin’s method, on the other hand, was more simple. He drilled a well at a place called Gordon Run Creek. To drill this well he used the tried and true spring-pole method. Grandin’s well had a depth of around 134 feet, and was deeper than Drake’s but it didn’t produce.

By the end of August, Grandin’s dry hole still accomplished many milestones in the petroleum industry. Grandin’s well was credited as the first well shot with black powder and the first well to be ruined by a shooting attempt.

September 1st, 1862 – Federal Oil Taxes Put in Place to Pay for Civil War

A federal tax of 15 cents per cubic foot of gas was put in place to help pay for the Civil War. The news about this tax wasn’t well received. Editors from the Brooklyn Daily Eagle attacked local gas companies responsible for the tax claiming it created an imbalance and burdened the company’s customers.

Brooklyn Gas Light Company publicly refuted the claims. A couple of years later in 1864, Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase introduced another $1 tax on oil barrels to help fund the war.

September 2nd, 1910 – Cities Service Company Inc. Opens in Oklahoma

Henry Doherty established Cities Service Company in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. It was a public utility company. Before the company was founded, Henry bought producing land Oklahoma and Kansas. He also acquired distributing companies and connected them to gas supplies. The company’s income came from stock dividends.

Five years later, the El Dorado Oilfield was discovered by Wichita Natural Gas Company. This company was a Cities Service Company subsidiary. The Oklahoma City Oilfield was discovered by another subsidiary, Empire Oil and Refining, in 1928.

In 1940, federal court mandates caused the divestiture of Cities Service’s Utilities. The remaining companies were reformed in 1959. This venture was named Cities Service Oil Company. In 1964, the company was renamed to CITGO to change as part of a rebranding effort.

In 1982, Occidental Petroleum acquired CITGO. Petróleos de Venezuela bought half of the company four years later, and finally in 1990, the other half of the company was acquired by the Venezuela Oil Company.

September 2nd, 2009 – Record in The Gulf of Mexico

In the Gulf of Mexico, a few hundred miles southeast of Houston, BP made a huge oil discovery uncovering a well that had a record depth of nearly 31,000 feet. A platform floated more than 4,000 feet above this discovery.

The location on the Timber Prospect Oil Field was thought to be very prolific. In 2009, it was estimated that it held more than 3 billion barrels of oil. This well was drilled by the Deepwater Horizon  which was ultimately destroyed in an oil spill and explosion in April 2010.


August 21st, 1897 – Olds Motor Vehicle Company Officially Opens in Michigan

Ransom Eli Olds was a pioneer in the automotive industry beginning when he established the Olds Motor Vehicle Company in Michigan in August of 1897. This company was the first auto manufacturer in Detroit. In 1899, Olds Motor Vehicle was renamed to Olds Motor Works.

In R.E. Olds: Auto Industry Pioneer, George Mays says that by the early 1900’s Olds had made eleven prototypes. Out of the eleven prototype vehicles, at least one used each power mode of gasoline, steam and electricity respectively. Olds was the only American to manufacture and sell each type of automobile.

Olds also created the concept for modern assembly lines utilizing a stationary assembly design. Henry Ford was the first person to use a moving assembly line. In 1901, the first mass-produced automobile was sold by Olds Motor Works.

August 24th, 1892 – “Prophet of Spindletop” Discovers Gladys City Oil Gas and Manufacturing

In 1892, Patillo Higgins founded the Gladys City Oil, Gas and Manufacturing Company. He was later to nickname the “Prophet of Spindletop.”

Higgins was a self-taught geologist and a Sunday School teacher. He and his partners leased over 2,500 acres of land in Texas, near the city of Beaumont. Higgins thought that Spindletop Hill, also nicknamed “Big Hill,” contained oil even though many scientific experts doubted the possibility.

One Sunday, when bringing his class to a regular trip on the hill, Higgins spotted natural gas and oil in the area. Higgins decided to name his company after his favorite student from Sunday School.

In 1895, Higgins made his departure from Gladys City Oil Gas and Manufacturing Company. However, the company still made its mark on the oil industry. The Spindletop field soon became the most prolific oilfield in the United States and more productive than all other oilfields in the world combined.

Patillo Higgins’ trust in the “Big Hill” allowed for the eventual formation of oil companies like Sun, Mobile, Texaco, and Gulf.

August 24th, 1923 – Discovery Leads to University of Texas’ First Royalty Payment

On August 24th, 1921, Santa Rita No. 1 Well uncovered a new oilfield on land owned by the University of Texas. The site was located in the Permian Basin. Three months after this discovery, the University of Texas got their first royalty payment, totally $516.

The 4 ½ square-mile field was found in Big Lake and was uncovered after the Texon Oil and Land Company drilled for 21 months. Petroleum royalties provided the university with over $4 million dollars in just three years.

The well’s walking beam and more equipment were moved to the university’s Austin campus in 1958. According to the student newspaper, this well improved conditions at the university. In one statement, it was said that this allowed the campus to go from shack-like buildings to modern classrooms.

August 24th, 1937 – Oil Gusher Makes a Bang in Music Mountain

In 1937, a gusher in McKean County surprised many, including the company that drilled it, when it began sprouting from the ground. The Niagara Oil Company, started drilling the well on Music Mountain, ultimately uncovering the first oil discovery in the area in over 70 years.

This well reached unprecedented depths at the time with a total recorded depth of 1,630 feet.

The producing well was located under the Bradford Sands, which had been discovered more than 50 years earlier. This region’s oil is known as one of the best lubricants on the planet. A refinery in Bradford, now the American Refining Group, has been refining oil in McKean County since the early 1880s.

August 27th, 1859 – Petroleum Industry Gets Its Start

The American petroleum industry officially got its start in Titusville, Pennsylvania when Edwin L. Drake, a former train conductor and William Smith, a former blacksmith, were hired by Seneca Oil Company to drill land in the area. They went on to discover the first commercial well in America. The well was drilled at around 70 feet near Oil Creek, and it eventually produced 25 BOPD.

Prior to this, small amounts of oil were found by spring pole and cable-tool drillers. The little amounts of oil were an unwanted by-product at the time. Still, Drake drilled for that oil. His investors planned to refine it into kerosene which was in high demand at the time.

Drake developed new drilling methods at Oil Creek. One of these methods was to drive an iron pipe into the well and preserve the integrity of the bore. Unfortunately, after months of drilling problems and setbacks, the people of the town named the well “Drake’s Folly.” Investors then addressed letters with “Colonel” Edwin Drake, in an attempt to improve his reputation.

Oil was seen floating at the top of a pipe by one of Drake’s drillers. “Uncle Billy” Smith made the discovery in the summer of 1859. A bit reached what was later called the First Venango Sand. Drake used a kitchen water pump to pump the oil.

August 27th, 1959 –  Centennial Petroleum Stamp Dedicated By U.S. Postmaster

In Titusville, Pennsylvania a crowd gathered for “Oil Centennial Day,” where the U.S. Postmaster General Arthur Summerfield spoke to a captivated audience. He introduced the new stamp, costing just four cents.

The keynote speaker called dedicating a stamp to commemorate 100 years of the oil industry one of his “greatest pleasures.” He also described the impact that petroleum had on peace and war in America.

Summerfield stated Americans have a good reason to be grateful to the industry. He went on to say that the American way of life wouldn’t have been possible without petroleum providing power.

In 2009, the U.S. Postal Service Stamp Advisory Committee refused requests for another oil industry stamp to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the petroleum industry. However, before this, Kermit the Frog and nine total muppets had been given a stamp.

August 15th, 1945 – Gas Rationing Comes to an End

The gas rationing that began during World War II ended in 1945. In 1942, when it started, the Office of Price Administration gave out coupon books and priority stickers in an attempt to conserve resources. Almost every civilian’s vehicle had an “A” sticker, which allowed them to have four gallons of gas per week.

A nation-wide speed limit of 35 miles per hour was put into place reduce gas consumption, but it wasn’t the only rationing effort that came as a result of the war. People also rationed food, tires, coffee and shoes.

August 16th, 1861 – McClintock Discovery Becomes Known as Oldest Producing Oil Well

A well completed close to Rouseville, Pennsylvania, the McClintock No. 1 Well became known as the oldest oil-producing well in America. The well reached just over 600 feet and produced 50 BOPD, located just 14 miles from Titusville where America’s first commercial well discovery took place.

The Oil Region Alliance for Business, Industry, and Tourism states that the McClintock is the oldest well that still produces oil at its initial depth. This organization promotes this well and other important historic landmarks in northern Pennsylvania.

In 1995, the well was donated by Quaker state. The Alliance claims that it still produces up to ten barrels of oil every month. While a marker is close to the site identifies the McClintock Well, many people pass the well every year and have no idea it’s there. In the Drake Well Museum, souvenir bottles of oil from this well are available.

August 16th, 1927 – Phillips Petroleum Fuels Air Race From California to Hawaii

The Phillips Petroleum Company developed high-octane fuel that allowed a monoplane to travel over the Pacific Ocean and that would eventually instigate the start of a deadly air race. August 16th, 1927, eight aircrafts took flight from Oakland, California in front of a crowd of more than 50,000 people watching this event.

The race started in California and was to end in Hawaii, where the Dole Pineapple Company offered up $25,000 prize for the person who took first place. This came just three months after Charles Lindbergh became the first person to make a solo flight across the Atlantic ocean.

Phillips Petroleum provided the fuel that powered the winning plane, as a special fuel was needed to make the 2,439-mile flight over the Pacific Ocean. The fuel, known as Nu-Aviation gasoline was the latest Phillips product and was developed to power a single-engine monoplane known as the Woolaroc.

Unfortunately, at the airport in Oakland, two fuel-heavy planes crashed during takeoff. After the crash, the remaining five planes flew out over the Pacific. Out of the five, only two were able to make it to Hawaii.

August 17th, 1785 – Oil Discovered Floating on Pennsylvania Creek

Just two years after the Revolutionary War ended, oil was found floating on a creek in Pennsylvania. U.S. Army General William Irvine revealed the area was labeled as Oil Creek because of the matter found floating at the surface.

According to General Irvine, the natives claimed this oil cured ailments including ulcers and rheumatic pains. According to the general, the creek emptied itself into the Allegheny River and the water flowed from a spring. The oil was on top of the water, much like Barbados tar and a single person alone could collect several gallons of the oil each day.

Oil Creek State Park used to be filled with barges and wooden derricks looking for more oil lurking beneath the surface. Now, it attracts many people with nearly 10,000 acres that are great for biking, backpacking and hiking.

August 18th, 2007 – Crater Exhibit Opens at Oklahoma Museum

The Astrobleme Museum opened in Ames, Oklahoma in 2007 and featured an exhibit shows the impact of a meteor and how it lead to a huge oil discovery in the area. The discovery was made by Harold Hamm almost 500 million after the meteor struck.

The location of the oil was about 20 miles from Enid and it was buried by almost 10,000 feet of sediment, making it virtually invisible. Impact craters were believed to be an unlikely place to find petroleum prior to this discovery.

Even though other wells were uncovered close by, no one had dug into the deep and hidden Ames crater of Major Country until 1991 when then Hamm’s Continental Resources drilled down to nearly 10,000 feet. This was unusual for the area, yet the drillers were able to locate oi and what would become one of the most prolific craters. It produced just over 17 million barrels of oil and close to 80 billion cubic feet of gas.

Independent producer Lew Ward of Ward Petroleum noted that the Ames Astrobleme was incredible discovery and one of the most observed geological features on the planet thanks to its massive impact on the economy.

Thanks to this discovery, oil companies across the globe began to see the potential of craters.

August 19th, 1957 – Oil Discovery in Washington

The Sunshine Mining Company drilled the first commercial oil well in Washington state in August of 1967. The well was called The Medina No 1 and produced just over 220 BOPD. The well was located in Grays Harbor County near Ocean City and had a depth of 4,135 feet.

Another well that was discovered 6 months before this produced more than 30 BOPD. However, it was labeled as non-commercial and later deserted. In contrast, the Medina produced almost 13,000 barrels until the well was capped in 1961.

According to a report in 2010, over 600 wells have been drilled in the state. Despite that, commercial production never occurred. In fact, no oil production has taken place in the state since 1962. However, some companies still continue to search for methane to this day.

August 7th, 1933 – Permian Basin Comic “Alley Oop” Hits the Presses

Even though the cartoon “Alley Oop” appeared for the first time in August 1933, the story behind this comic actually dates back much earlier. It all started with a 1926 oil discovery in the Permian Basin. A small Texas oil town would later be named the inspiration for artist of the comic, Victor Hamlin.

Iraan was first identified as a booming town in 1926 after the discovery of the productive Yates oilfield. The town’s name merged names of landowners Ira and Ann Yates. During the oil boom, in Permian Basin, Hamlin was as a cartographer for an oil company. He had a fascination with paleontology and geology which ultimately led to the development of his comic strip.

August 7th, 2004 –Well Control Expert, Paul “Red” Adair Passes Away

On August 7th, 2004, Paul “Red” Adair, a famed firefighter and well control expert passed away at age 89 in Texas. Adair, born in 1915,. Served on the bomb disposal unit for the U.S. Army during World War II. After his service, he worked for Myron Kinley, a pioneer in oilfield firefighting from California.

Adair established his own business, called the Red Adair Company in 1959. He created new technologies designed for “wild well” control. Over the years, his organization put out upwards of 2,000 well fires and blowouts all over the world.

The oilfield firefighter’s expertise was documented in the 1968 John Wayne film Hellfighters. These skills were put to the test in 1991 when Adair and his organization put out 117 oil well fires in Kuwait that were started by Saddam Hussein’s Iraqi Army.

August 9th, 1921 – Reflection Seismography Discovered in Oklahoma

Dr. J.C. Karcher, a physicist from Oklahoma, pioneered research that led to the first reflection seismograph in the world.  In 1921, this geologic section was measured close to Ardmore.

According to the Oklahoma Historical Society, the state was the first location where this technique for oil exploration was used. The method records reflected seismic waves as they move through the earth, resulting in the location of productive oil formations.

The Arbuckle Mountains were selected for a pilot survey on this technique due to the number of exposed formations in this area.

August 9th, 1922 – Psychic Helps Locate Oilfield in Texas

The United North and South Oil Company had a breakthrough with the Rafael Rios No. 1 Well close to Luling, Texas, thanks to insight from an unexpected source; a psychic by the name of Edgar Cayce.

This discovery came after they had just drilled six dry holes. In 1922, another oil field was uncovered. It was over 10 miles long and more than a mile wide. Two years later, the field had nearly 400 wells that produced oil, yielded more than 10 million barrels of oil.

This company was the first tap oil production in the area, thanks to president President Edgar B. Davis who locals claim was the one to contact the psychic.

Davis later sold his leases to the Magnolia Petroleum Company for more than $10 million. It was biggest oil deal in Texas to date. The psychic, Cayce, claimed that he had great success helping many wildcatters. However, he failed with his own oil company, only drilling dry holes. According to Reader’s Digest, Luling now has a yearly Roughneck BBQ and Chili Cook-Off to celebrate the discovery,  They are said to have the best ribs in the nation.

August 10th, 1909 – Dual-Cone Roller Bit Hits the Market

Howard Hughes Sr. of Texas made “fishtail” drill bits obsolete with his invention of the dual-cone roller bit. This patented design was made of two turning cones that could pulverize hard rocks, leading to deeper and faster drilling.

According to many historians, there were several people trying to improve drill bits at this time. Hughes and business partner Walter Sharp were the ones who found success. Months before receiving their patent in 1909, they founded the Sharp-Hughes Tool Company. They did this so that they could manufacture their bit.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers noted that rather than scraping at rock, like the fishtail bit does, the Hughes bit adopted a different approach that instead burrowed in to the rock. On August 10th, 2009, 100 years after the initial discovery, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers named the invention a historic mechanical engineering landmark.

The ASME added that by chipping and powdering rock formations, the Hughes Two-Cone Drill Bit could reach a great depth and tap into reservoirs thousands of feet below surface level which would have a lasting impact on the oil industry.

August 12th, 1930 – Western Kentucky Oil Men’s Association Takes Shape

Independent producers from Eastern Kentucky joined the Western Kentucky Oil Men’s Association in August of 1930. During the meeting, held in Frankfurt, articles of incorporation were revised that would go on to establish a statewide organization. This organization is now known as the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association.

In 1919, oil was discovered close to Pellville in Hancock County, Kentucky. This started an oil boom in the area. Historians also claim this state was home to the first commercial oil well in America. Oil was initially found here in 1829 while boring for salt brine on a farm close to Burkesville.

August 13th, 1962 – Norman Rockwell Appears in Oil and Gas Journal

The Oil and Gas Journal used a now infamous drawing from artist Norman Rockwell to promote their publication in 1962.  It was called “Where Oil Men Invest Their Important Reading Time.” Rockwell’s depictions of American became popular in many magazines including Leslie’s Illustrated WeeklySaturday Evening Post and more.

Rockwell created artwork for the American Petroleum Institute in 1959. They sponsored a “first day of issue”  for the U.S. postal service celebrating the birth of the oil industry in the United States, which took place 100 years earlier.

According to a collector, Rockwell’s drawing incorporated the phrase “Oil’s First Century 1859-1959, Born in Freedom Working for Progress.” The illustration portrayed men of science and the extraction of crude oil and ended with a depiction of an attendant at a service station.

August 1st, 1872 – First Current Pipeline Distributed

The biggest gas distribution by pipeline started in August of 1872 when gas was transported from a well in Pennsylvania to a location nearly five miles away. The well produced 4 million cubic feet of gas every day, establishing itself as the biggest well in the area.

Leaders of the Titusville and the Cornerstone Gas and Water Organization created their pipeline with a sing mission in mind: to bring one of the most powerful wells on record to over 250 clients in Titusville.

Author David Waples stated that at this time, before it was introduced by George Westinghouse, the use of commercial gas was considered to be dangerous.

August 2nd, 1938 – Goodbye Hog Bristles, Hello Nylon Toothbrushes

The Weco Company made advancements on its toothbrush in 1938 when they created the first toothbrush to have synthetic nylon called the Miracle-Tuft. Scientific experts at DuPont created it only 36 months earlier. Upon the reveal, New York Times stated that Americans in the future would brush their teeth with nylon instead of hog bristles.

An advertisement in Life magazine promoted the nylon bristles. Previously, all toothbrushes were made with animal hair bristles. The Miracle-Tuft contained DuPont’s interesting new fiber called EXTON.

Weco Items sold their toothbrushes for 50 cents a piece and assured buyers that there would be no shedding. Within the next year, the company Johnson and Johnson came out with a nylon toothbrush. Previously, the Royal Society of Chemistry observed that the world relied on toothbrushes made with hog bristles.

August 2nd, 1956 – First Interstate in the United States Begins Construction

Missouri was one of the first states to get construction funding for an interstate. Construction was authorized 8 weeks earlier by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. On August 2nd, 1956, work officially began on Route 66.

The Highway-Aid Act provided all federal funding for a system of interstate highways. That made it possible for states to afford the construction of limited access highways. These highways stretched across more than 40,000 miles. Leaders said the interstate was the best development of transportation in the history of the U.S.

August 3rd, 1769 – Spanish Explorers Discover First Asphalt Pits

In 1769, La Brea pits were discovered during a Spanish expedition by Franciscan Friar. In his diary detailed the expedition, the explorer wondered whether the tar was causing so many earthquakes.

Someone else on the expedition, Juan Crespi coined the expression “bitumen” to describe these sticky pools throughout southern California. Petroleum had been leaking in the waterfront plain dregs for over 40,000 years, eventually Americans would utilize the substance to waterproof bins and canoes.

Even though they were called tar pits, the pools at Rancho La Brea were black-top, not tar. Tar comes from the refining of woody materials while the black-top in the pits is a shaped substance made from hydrocarbon particles.

August 3rd, 1942 – War Brings Oil Pipelines to the United States

War Crisis Pipelines, Inc., started developing the longest oil pipeline in America in 1942, beginning the construction on what would eventually be called it the “Big Inch line.”

The purpose of this line was to supply fuel requests from the war. It also served as an answer to U-boat’s assaulted oil tankers. Big Inch and Little Big Inch were named the greatest government to industry collaboration.

The plan was to deliver 300,000 BOPD, an ambitious  goal that spearheaded the development of the two pipelines. The Big Inch was first and it traveled from East Texas all the way to Illinois. The Little Big Inch, which stretched from New York to Philadelphia came next. The effort went on to cost $95 million dollars total. Currently, the Trans-Alaska pipeline spans across over 800 miles.

March 13th, 1974 – End of OPEC Embargo

A five-month long oil embargo on the U.S. ended was officially ended on March 13th, 1974 by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries’ (OPEC) Arab members. The embargo was originally applied as a response to the United States providing resources for the Yom Kippur war effort to the Israeli military.

This created a shortage of gasoline and caused President Richard Nixon to come up with a solution. That solution came in the form of voluntary rationing of gas and a Sunday sales ban on gas; it was quickly approved by Congress. The OPEC discontinued the embargo when Israeli troops were withdrawn from some of Sinai, following a negotiation with Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger.

March 14th, 1909 – California Rattled By Lake View Gusher

On the morning of March 14th, a California well called Lake View at Midway-Sunset erupted, causing disturbances and heavy vibrations throughout the region. San Joaquin Valley experienced many gushers during this time including the Shamrock Gusher (1986) and the Midway Gusher, (1909).

However, the Lake View Number One had the biggest impact. In addition to the physical vibrations from the gusher, the well spilled 18,000 barrels every 24 hours for about 18 months.

This gusher nearly became the most famous in American history, right behind the Spindletop Hill gusher of 1901. Lake View was eventually contained in October of 1910. Fortunately, a device designed to prevent blowouts and while capping wells was introduced in 1922, putting a halt to the gusher issues that plagued wells around the country.

March 15th, 1946 – Texas Independent Producers and Royalty Owners Association Established

In 1946, Texas Independent Producers and Royalty Owners Association was formed in an effort to protect the right to survey and manufacture oil and gas. It was created by a group of Independents wanting to protect their rights and maintain their own quality of life.

Until that time, when a number of oil fields were discovered, it often lead to an overproduction and disputes with large oil companies. These difficult disputes are what pushed these Independents to form their own trade association.

March 16th, 1914 – Completion of Main Street Oil Well

In 1914, a well that Ripley’s Believe It or Not would hail as the World’s Only Main Street Oil Well was officially completed. This well held oil from below the town of Barnsdall, Oklahoma, about 1,700 feet down.

This Oklahoma town, in Osage County, was first named  Bigheart for James Bigheart, former Osage Chief. It was later renamed for the owner of Barnsdall Refining company, Theodore Barnsdale. Today, this company still exists as a wax refinery. In 1916, Barnsdall went on to discover several additional oil fields in the area.

The well still exists today, and in 1997, it earned a place in the National Register of Historic Places.

March 17th, 1890 – Sunoco Expands to Ohio

Four years after the Peoples Natural Gas company was organized by Edward Emerson and Joseph Pew in an effort to supply gas to the city of Pittsburgh, the company made a move to Ohio in an expansion effort. It was later named The Sun Oil Company of Ohio.

This company obtained promise leases around Findlay near the turn of the century. They began to make a mark in the industry of producing carbon oil, rock oil and petroleum. The business also transported, stored, refined and purified this oil and their products.

Sun Oil also ppened and promoted Sunoco Motor Oil service locations in both Pennsylvania and Ohio in the 1920s. In 1929, they then got into the business of equipment. At this time, a partnership between Sunoco and Sperry Gyroscope, called Sperry-Sun was formed.

March 17th, 1923 –  Oklahoma Oilfields Discovered

A major Seminole area boom was created by a well known as the Betsy Foster Number 1. This was a gusher that spilled 2,800 barrels each day close to Wewoka in Seminole County, OK.

The following year, more wells were uncovered nearby including Cromwell and Behel, while Seminole and Earlsboro were eventually discovered in 1926. Following these discoveries, more wells were eventually found in the Oklahoma City area, establishing what would be a highly profitable industry for the city.

There were 39 oil fields in total developed in this region and surrounding counties at the time. However, this rapid expansion proved to be too much of a good thing, as overproduction caused prices to dip down to 17 cents per barrel.

March 17th, 1949 – Hydraulic Fracturing in Business

Stanolind and Halliburton company experts crossed paths around one oil well near Duncan, Oklahoma area when they performed commercial hydraulic fracturing for the first time.

A few years earlier, in 1947, an experimental well fractured a gas field near the town of Hugoton, Kansas, introducing the promise for a future climb in productivity.

The strategy was created and patent protected by Stanolind (now called the Pan American Oil Company). A license was given exclusively to Halliburton Company to allow them to use this method.

This license was granted to all other recognized oilfield companies four years later. Since then, it has been said that hydraulic fracturing is one of the most effective of all techniques to boost recoverable reserves.

The first venture to boost petroleum production in a well started in the 1860s. Erle Halliburton created a technology in 1921 that increased productivity in the production of oil. It also protected the environment through well cementing.

March 18th, 1937 – Explosion Takes the New London School

Just before the end of an otherwise normal day,  New London High School was destroyed by a natural gas explosion. The school was located in Rusk County, TX.

An odorless gas, also known as casing gas, leaked into the basement of the school causing an explosion that was felt for miles. Texas oil workers and reporters quickly made their way to school grounds. Despite rescue attempts, 298 people died that day, with many others passing away late from related injuries.

The source of the explosion was an electric sander in the wood shop that sparked the gas that collected below the building and in walls. After this tragedy, Texas and other areas around the country passed laws to prevent future disasters. They required gases and malodorant to be combined to provide quicker detection for gas leaks.

Every week is filled with petroleum facts. Some only pertain to the time it happened. Others have affected us for generations. Here are a few that took place in March between the 6th and 12th.

March 7, 1902 — Sour Lake: From Resort to Boom Town

On March 6th, 1902, Sour Lake, Texas was a sleepy resort town with one hotel and a population of just 50 people. When oil was discovered one day later, it became the latest Texas boom town and soon was flooded with as many as 10,000 employees and visitors.

At its peak, Sour Lake Oil Field produced 50,000 barrels of oil daily. As the wells dried up, so did the population. Eventually, the town settled into a citizenship that fluctuated between 2000 and 3000 citizens. Sour Lake and the area where the Sour Lake Springs Hotel stood were owned back in the early 20th century by the Texas Company. This organization eventually became known as Texaco.


March 11, 1829 — Kentucky’s Earliest Commercial Oil Well

Most people think of Texas when it comes to the early history of oil discoveries. In reality, what was considered one of the first commercial oil setups began a few hundred miles east in Kentucky. This is in great thanks to a man by the name of Martin Beatty.

A salt maker by trade, Beatty dabbled a bit in oil. However, it wasn’t until the late 1820s that he discovered a large deposit of oil. Though only drilled down to 171 feet, the first Great American Oil Well produced a gusher which spilled oil into the Cumberland River as far down as 50 miles. The oil caught fire and burned for nearly three weeks.

Fortunately, the oil well ended up producing 50,000 barrels of crude into the start of the Civil War.


March 11, 1930 — Exploring Geophysicists Get Their Own Society

While many people associated advancements in the oil field with wealthy business tycoons, it is really geophysicists that can be thanked for many of these advancements.

These scientists study the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment. In other words, they make sure things are going to be okay before a well is drilled.

In 1930, a number of these scientists got together and created the Society of Economic Geophysicists. After playing around with a few name changes, the organization eventually became the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG). Since its inception, the Tulsa-based group has grown to over 33,000 members, has produced the publication GEOPHYSICS for decades, and has become one of the innovators to study the Earth across the globe.

March 12, 1912 — Dry Hole Slick strikes a Oklahoma Gusher

Today, Cushing, Oklahoma is known as the crossroads of the pipeline world with its delivery capacity of 90 million barrels of oil across the country. Yet, that might not have been the case if Thomas Baker Smith hadn’t come to the area.

In 1912, the man known as “Dry Hole Slick” struck a gusher east of Cushing, and made his well one of the most successful between Oklahoma and Tulsa. For two decades afterward, Slick struck successful well after successful well, to the point that he was honored with the title “King of the Wildcatters.” Slick has been honored as one of the state’s petroleum leaders with a display at the state’s Museum of Natural History.

March 12, 1914 — USS Texas, the Last Coal-Powered Boiler Battleship

When the U.S. Navy  left the Age of Sail in the early 1880s for a modern, steel-hulled force, it relied on coal-powered engines to propel it across the waters. While they were able to succeed in battles like those in Manilla and Cuba during the Spanish-American War, the process of shoveling 2,000 tons of coal into the engines, the dark smoke and ash didn’t help. So, once the 20th century began, Naval officials decided to make the move toward a fuel-based fleet.

The last of the coal-powered battleships to be commissioned was the USS. Texas. The second naval ship to bear the name of the state, this armor-plated battleship had an impressive record. She was the first U.S. battleship to mount anti-aircraft guns and one of the honored U.S. craft to serve with the British Grand Fleet. The USS Texas served during both WWI and WWII on numerous convoy missions. Today, she stands as a powerful memorial docked at Houston’s ship channel.

March 12, 1943 — Oil Drillers Head to Sherwood Forest

Robin Hood and his Merry Men? Well, the Oklahoma roughnecks who arrived in England weren’t stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. Actually, they were making sure a nation wrecked by Germany had the fuel they needed in World War II.

It was an incredible secret. With tankers constantly at risk in the Atlantic and British oil wells producing a mere 300 barrels a day, something needed to be done. So, British officials covertly made their way to Washington to seek help. The result was a team of drillers, derrickmen, and other petroleum employees who were quietly sent to England aboard the HMS Queen Elizabeth. The team used their proactive skills to drill approximately one well each week in the forest. Today, a statue named “Oil Patch Warrior” stands in in the city of Nottingham to commemorate the brave Americans who helped keep England going.

March 12, 1968 — Oil is Discovered in Alaska’s Prudhoe Bay

Prudhoe Bay, in Northern Alaska, is cold with long winters. Yet, it can be one of the most populous towns in the state several months a year thanks to the discovery of the largest oil field in not only the United States but in North America.

The field itself is over 215,000 acres and originally contained the equivalent of 25 million barrels of oil. The field was originally pinpointed by Tom Marshall, a  petroleum geologist who lived in the new state of Alaska was given the task of finding the right piece of land for investment. Prudhoe Bay caught his eye — it reminded him of the large oil basins of Wyoming — and the rest was history. For his work, Marshall received only a citation from the state government.

Every week is filled with petroleum facts. Some only pertain to the time it happened. Others have affected us for generations. Here are a few which took place between February 27th to March 5th.

February 28th, 1935 — Nylon is Invented

On February 24th, 1938, the first toothbrush made with Nylon bristles was sold. This wouldn’t have happened if not for the creation of the synthetic polymer approximately three years before. This is all thanks to Wallace Hume Carothers. Originally an accountant, Wallace decided to embark on a career in chemistry. In 1924, while working on his study of polymers, DuPont Laboratories hired him to create a man-made fiber.

After many attempts, Carothers became frustrated. It wasn’t until a colleague recommended using amines, rather than glycols, to produce polyamides that his experiments turned the corner. A year later, Nylon began to be sold commercially. At the 1939 World’s Fair in New York City, there was even a large Nylon-stocking foot display to honor the creation, and the massive statue drew a great deal of attention.

A few years later, the fiber was a major equipment component utilized during World War II.



March 1, 1921 — New Cementing Technology from Halliburton

Though many in the 21st century know the name Halliburton from scandals during the George W. Bush presidency, its roots go back nearly a century. In fact, it was the technological leader in extracting oil from under the Earth’s surface in the early 1900s; cementing its oil field wells as early as 1919.

In 1921, the process, invented by Erle P. Halliburton, was officially patented. Before the company bore his name, Haliburton titled it the New Method Oil Well Cementing Company.

This cementing technique helped to decrease the amount of abandoned wells from excess water by isolating the various down-hole zones. This protected the interior of the well from collapse and the exterior from oil leaks.




March 2, 1922 — A One Million Dollar Oil Lease for the Osage Nation

160 acres. This is how much oil-rich land the Osage Nation decided to auction off to the highest bidder in the late winter of 1922. And their efforts more than paid off. Utilizing the auctioneering powers of Colonel Elmer Ellsworth Walters, The Oklahoma-based tribe was able to collect $1 million dollars for the parcel.

The auction took place in what is now called the Million Dollar Elm. Colonel Walters, who became the official auctioneer for the Osage Nation in 1916, spent several hours underneath the elm in order to win the $1 million bid jointly paid by Skelly Oil and Phillips Petroleum Company. When all the papers were signed, the sale of this land became the first million dollar mineral lease in history. Impressed with Colonel Walter’s ability to maximize their profits, the Osage Nation presented him with a medal to thank him for his contributions.



March 2, 1944 — War Emergency Pipeline Sends Petroleum to the East Coast

World War II was a time of loss and sacrifice but also a time of invention out of sheer need. This included a need to be able to deliver needed fuel to the East Coast, something they had been sort of since German U-boats began attacking tankers at the start 1942.

Enter “Little Big Inch.” Requested by Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes, as early as 1940, this 12-inch pipeline delivered refined fuel from the Eastern Texas coastal cities of Houston and Beaumont to Linden Station, New Jersey only a few months before D-Day. The pipeline’s big brother, “Big Inch” delivered crude oil through a 20-inch pipeline. Between the opening of these two pipelines and the end of the war, 350 million barrels of crude oil and refined product were delivered to the East Coast.



March 3, 1879– Creation of the U.S. Geological Survey

Currently, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), an agency within the Department of the Interior, has over 10,000 employees and a budget of $1 billion. Back when then-President Rutherford B. Hayes signed it into law to survey the territories of the United States.

At the time, the USGS was designated to classify public lands, examine geological structures, review mineral resources and determine the products of the national domain of those Western territories. Many of the agency’s discoveries resulted in the discovery of oil and other valuable minerals. Today, the USGS provides a wealth of scientific data on more than just the geology of America. Its current role is to review and try to come up with solutions to natural hazards which threaten lives and natural resources we rely on for our environment.

March 3, 1886 — Lighting up Kansas with Natural Gas

Remember the name Paola. This small Kansas city and current seat of Miami County became something much more important in March of 1886. It turned out to be the very first town in Kansas to be lit up at night by natural gas.

This historic moment was thanks to a natural gas discovery in 1882 when the Kansas Oil and Mining Company was discovered through borings on land seven miles east of town. According to Miami County historical records, the deposit could light a city of one million people. Once the first lamps where light in 1886, the city council asked to purchase 50 more at $8.75 per unit. A year later, the city held a Natural Gas Jubilee to celebrate the continued flow of the natural power supply.


March 4, 1918 — West Virginia Well Named World’s Deepest

If you look at the current records of the West Virginia Geological & Economic Survey, you’ll see a number of wells of numerous depths. The deepest reached over 20,000 feet. In 1918, an oil well on the Martha Goff Farm in Harrison, West Virginia, was deemed the deepest in the world.

According to the book A Century of Service, which details the history of West Virginia’s oil and gas industry, the well was 7,386 feet deep, which beat one previously dug in Germany. The Martha Goff Well would hold its title until 1919 when a well in Marion County beat the standing record.


March 4, 1933 — Oklahoma Governor Declares Martial Law on Oil Field

Back in 1928, the Oklahoma City Oil Field produced most of the state’s crude oil. Because it was discovered within city limits, it posed numerous issues when it came to the amount of production and location of wells. Between 1929 and 1930, Oklahoma City Council halted drilling several times and restricted it to only certain locations in the city. This resulted in numerous violations, and frankly, a great deal of chaos.

Enter Governor William H. “Alfalfa Bill” Murray. On March 4, 1933, Governor Murray declared martial law on the oil field for a period of ten days. This allowed the situation to calm down and gave the state government time to put together set of regulations to allow for drilling without overusing the area.

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